The Evolving Landscape of Digital Governance

  • Publicly funded research and development;
  • Digitization of public sector services (‘eGov’ platforms);
  • IT-related legal frameworks, policy design, and regulatory interventions.
  • Private firms that develop and operate digital infrastructure or administer commercially oriented digital service platforms (incl. ‘Big Tech’);
  • IT-related public-private partnerships.
  • Activities of trade associations that lobby governments;
  • User behavior which informs strategic choices by platform operators;
  • Experiments in participatory governance, such as platform and data cooperativism.
  • Multi-stakeholder governing bodies such as ICANN, IETF, and W3C;
  • Internet-focused think tanks and policy forums.
  • Coordinating the development and maintenance of popular FOSS technologies, mainly through formal organizations such as software foundations and private firms, but also through informal coordination in distributed online communities.
  • Rules inscribed in relevant software protocols (known as on-chain governance);
  • Rules and coordination external to software protocols (known as off-chain governance).
  • Automated recordkeeping and real-time monitoring and control systems;
  • Automation of mechanical processes, especially in manufacturing, utilities, and logistics.

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